Practical Steps to Human Resource Recruiting and Selection Process

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Recruitment can be defined as the various steps and actions taken to attract and engage an individual for a position in an organization.  These steps are processes the Human Resource Department of an organization must undergo to guarantee a successful and profitable filling of a vacancy.  These procedures includes the following:

  • Vacancy identification
  • Job Description
  • Advertising
  • Short Listing
  • Interview
  • Reference Check
  • Selection



This may arise when a new position is necessary for the fulfilment of organizational goals or when there is an expansion of a department to create a new position. In most cases, vacancies becomes available when organizations expand their operational competence as well as creation of more departments/divisions.


The process of writing a job description requires having a clear understanding of the job’s duties and responsibilities. The job posting should also include a concise picture of the skills required for the position to attract qualified job candidates. Organize the job description into five sections: Company Information, Job Description, Job Requirements and Benefits. Be sure to include keywords that will help make your job posting searchable. A well-defined job description will help attract qualified candidates as well as help reduce employee turnover in the long run.


This is the process of putting out the available vacancies to be filled.  There are various media through which this can be achieved.  There are electronic media like Radio and Television, Newspapers and Magazines as well as Social Media which may include Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.  This group of media has become the most used because of the economy involved in their use.  They are cheaper than the conventional media (Radio, Television, Newspapers and Magazines).  They also attract more audience because of their appeal to the youths who are majority of the available workforce.


This is the process by which candidates with the right qualification and experience are identified for invitation to be interviewed for vacancies that exists in an organization.  This may be done by a committee or a list of such candidates is passed to the management team along with their Curiculum Vitae to assist in the taking a decision as to which candidate is invited taking into consideration the job description.  Age also play an important role in this process because some roles require various age limits for effective functioning.


An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given.  This process is carried out by a number of persons known as an Interview Panel.   The word “interview” refers to a one-on-one conversation with one person acting in the role of the interviewer and the other in the role of the interviewee. The interviewer usually a member of the Panel asks questions, the interviewee responds, with participants taking turns talking. Interviews usually involve a transfer of information from interviewee to interviewer, which is usually the primary purpose of the interview, although information transfers can happen in both directions simultaneously.

Interviews usually take place face to face and in person, although modern communications technologies such as the Internet have enabled interviews to take place between parties that are separated geographically, such as with videoconferencing skype software, and of course telephone interviews can happen without visual contact. Interviews almost always involve spoken conversation between two or more parties. Interviews can range from unstructured or pen-ended conversations in which there is no predetermined plan with prearranged questions, to highly structured conversations in which specific questions occur in a specified order.

Interviews can follow diverse forms; for example, a respondent’s answers typically guide subsequent interviews questions, with the objective being to explore a respondent’s knowledge and reasoning. Typically the Interview Panel has some way of scoring the answers to questions by the Interviewee this is often by numeric scores with a pen and paper.  Interviews have a duration in time, in the sense that the interview has a beginning and an ending.


This is the process by which information provided by candidates who are being considered for engagement are checked for reliability and correctness.  This opportunity is also used to among other things verify residential addresses, referees and other vital information that would safeguard the interest of the organization.  This is essential when the organization is involved in the gathering and analysis of sensitive data, information and the handling of valuable items like cash.


This is a process of selection of successful and qualified candidates who meets the criteria set for job description been considered identified by the Panel of Interviewers.  These criteria includes but not limited to knowledge of the subject matter under consideration, appearance, leadership traits and initiative.

An essential part of this selection process is the medical state of candidates.  This is essential because for certain duties, physical and mental fitness is paramount for proper functioning.  This is why in selections into the Armed Forces, a pass in medical check is a condition for final section.  This is also important in other work environments like construction sites, manufacturing processes and even conventional clerical duties.

The result of reference checks referred to above forms an integral part of this selection process because its outcome determine candidates’ suitability or otherwise.  The combination of these factors determine whether a candidate is given a contract.

This contract document may be in form of Contract Agreement or Employment letter which will spell out the conditions of the contract or employment.  Conditions in these documents usually include:

  1. Date of commencement of contract or employment
  2. Remuneration offered
  • Other benefits outside regular salary (medical, leave, pension etc.)
  1. Conditions under which parties can terminate this contract/employment
  2. General rules and regulations governing this contract/employment

For this Contract/Employment to be effective, the Contractor/Employee must signify his/her acceptance of the conditions attached in writing within a specific period.


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